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NTBG Plant Name:
Hibiscus kokio subsp. kokio
Specimen ID:
Collector ID:
Collector Name:
K. R. Wood
Collection Date:
August 6, 2005
Herbarium Name:
David Boynton, Mark Query
Island Group:
Kauai County
Haupu summit region; northern cliffs and slopes.
Plant Category:
Plant Description:
1-3 m tall shrubs or small trees with windswept twisting branches, stems light green, corolla, stigma, and style red, ca 300 trees around eastern slopes and north face, cuttings from three separate individuals
Ancillary: Seed:
90% open shrubland/fernland with a 10% sparse tree cover.
Associated Species:
Metrosideros polymorpha, Xylosma hawaiiense, Ilex anomala, Hedyotis terminalis, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, Bidens valida, Hedyotis fluviatilis, Melicope feddei, Machaerina angustifolia, Dicranopteris linearis and Diplopterygium pinnatum.
CUTTINGS FROM THREE INDIVIDUALS North Facing Cliffs of Ha`upu. The northern face of Ha`upu is composed of vertical cliffs and steep slopes that drop around 300 m (1000 ft) to the forested slopes below and further level off to the pastures of Kipu Ranch. The cliff community is a 90% open shrubland/fernland with a 10% sparse tree cover. Trees average between 2—3 m tall and include species such as Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ohi‘a); Xylosma hawaiiense (maua); Ilex anomala (kawa‘u); Hedyotis terminalis (manono); Antidesma platyphyllum var. hillebrandii (hame); Psychotria mariniana (kopiko); Perrottetia sandwicensis (olomea); Tetraplasandra bisattenuata (‘ohe‘ohe); Tetraplasandra oahuensis (‘ohe mauka); Pittosporum gayanum (ho‘awa); Pipturus kauaiensis (mamaki); and Pipturus albidus (mamaki). The most common shrub is Bidens valida (ko‘oko‘olau). Several other common shrubs include Hedyotis fluviatilis (kamapua‘a); Melicope feddei (alani); and Hedyotis acuminata (au). Sedges and grasses on the northern slopes include the very common Machaerina angustifolia (‘uki); Eragrostis variabilis (kawelu); Carex wahuensis; Carex meyenii; and occasionally Rhynchospora sclerioides (kuolohia). Matting ferns which compose around 30% of the vegetation on the northern cliffs include Dicranopteris linearis (uluhe) and Diplopterygium pinnatum (uluhe lau nui). Other less common ferns include Cibotium glaucum (hapu‘u); Elaphoglossum crassifolium (hoe a Maui); Sadleria pallida (‘ama‘u ‘i‘i); Sphenomeris chinensis (pala‘a); Selaginella arbuscula (lepelepe a moa); and Christella cyatheoides (kikawaio). On the slightly dryer black basalt cliff faces to the west of the summit additional native species were observed that were absent from the wetter slopes directly below the summit. The most significant of these include Artemisia australis (‘ahinahina); Chamaesyce celastroides (‘akoko); Lepidium orbiculare (‘anaunau); and Lobelia niihauensis. Between 15% to 25% of the northern face has been invaded by invasive non-native species, the most common of which were Melastoma septemnervium (Asian melastome); Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass); and the introduced fern Blechnum appendiculatum. ***Hibiscus kokio (Malvaceae) is known from Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, and the Big Island of Hawai`i and is considered an SOC by the USFWS. The Hawaiian name for this species is koki‘o ‘ula. On Ha`upu it can be seen along the eastern slopes of our study area; in the forested slopes below the northern cliffs; and occasionally along the upper northern cliffs. They are small trees, 50—200 cm tall; moderately branched with light gray stems; leaves are dark green; stigma, style, and corolla are red; approximately 300 trees were observed during this research; (K. R. Wood et al. 11425; 11443).
Date of Record Creation:
October 18, 2011
Date of Last Update:
August 6, 2023

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