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NTBG Plant Name:
Ischaemum byrone
Specimen ID:
Collector ID:
Collector Name:
K. R. Wood
Collection Date:
April 6, 2005
Herbarium Name:
Other Herbarium:
Island Group:
Moku Huki Islet
Maui County
E. Maui, islet off north coast, with low basalt tide-pools and rising with thick vegetation.
Plant Category:
Plant Description:
Grass along open exposed vertical basalt and preferring seeps, vegetative with no flower or fruit, ca. 20 patches scattered on the north and west end of islet.
Associated Species:
Upper knob of ridge-line covered in Sphenomeris chinensis with occasional Sadleria pallida, interspersed with Phymatosorus grossus, Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, Scaevola sericea, Pandanus tectorius is common tree, sedges include Paspalum scrobiculatum, Carex wahuensis, Cyperus phleoides, and Cyperus polystachyos.
MOKU HUKI Overview. Moku Huki is an islet off the northern coast of East Maui and lies just 30 m off-shore of a rolling boulder beach in Waiohue Bay. It is approximately 65 meters long x 22 m wide and has an elevation of around 15 m (UTM 0800252 – 2305746). The lower northern end is composed of a low flat outcrop of open black basalt with tide-pools and the central and northern portions are elevated with a crown of thick vegetation that completely covers the upper ridgeline. The eastern vertical slopes are sparsely vegetated and the western side is moderately so. In order to access the upper vegetation, the author (KRW) tossed a climbing line into a tree on the northern wall of the islet and ascended to the crown. Several rappels were made at random points along the ridge to investigate the vertical sections for vegetation. Vegetation. The vegetation of Moku Huki is unique for Hawai`i’s off-shore islets in that it’s upper knob of ridge-line is thickly covered in the indigenous fern Sphenomeris chinensis (palapala‘ä). This is complimented by the occasional presence of the endemic fern Sadleria pallida (‘ama‘u). Interspersed and emergent within the native fern cover is the alien fern Phymatosorus grossus (laua‘e) in addition to the indigenous shrubs Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (ulei) and Scaevola sericea (naupaka). Along the upper eastern cliff zone a single 3m tall x 2m wide Wikstroemia oahuensis (‘äkia) was observed in early flower. Pandanus tectorius (hala) is the most common tree and reaches a height of approximately 5-7 m. Moss can be observed growing on their twisting trunks and both male and female plants were observed. Native sedges and grasses of interest include Paspalum scrobiculatum (mau‘u laiki) which can be seen along the eastern upper cliff zone. Carex wahuensis, Cyperus phleoides, and Cyperus polystachyos can be seen both on the upper slopes and along the lower walls and flat northern tide-pool zone. Also along the northern tidal zone the stiff-leaved Fimbristylis cymosa subsp. spathacea (mau‘u ‘aki‘aki) is occasionally present. The rare grass Ischaemum byrone is present both along the lower western cliff zone, in addition to the northern flats and seepy walls. 31 species of vascular plants were observed. 16 (52%) were native and 15 (48%) were alien. 13 numbered vouchered specimens were made and will be housed at the PTBG & BISH herbaria. Threats. Most importantly two plants of Ficus microcarpa (Chinese banyan) were seen on the steep eastern slope of Moku Huki. This species has the potential to cover large areas of land and displace native species by spreading its roots slowly over the islet. In addition, a few trees of Ardisia elliptica (shoebutton ardisia) were observed along the central ridge line. All invasive alien species could potentially be removed. Restoration Plant List -- Moku Huki Ardisia elliptica -- Shoebutton ardisia -- (Myrsinaceae) – Alien Bacopa monnieri -- ‘ae‘ae -- (Scrophulariaceae) – Indigenous Carex wahuensis -- Carex -- (Cyperaceae) – Endemic Centella asiatica -- pohe kula -- (Apiaceae) – Alien Conyza bonariensis -- Hairy horseweed -- (Asteraceae) – Alien Cordyline fruticosa -- kï -- (Agavaceae) – Polynesian Cyperus haspan -- Cyperus -- (Cyperaceae) – Alien Cyperus phleoides phleoides -- Cyperus -- (Cyperaceae) – Endemic Cyperus polystachyos -- Cyperus -- (Cyperaceae) – Indigenous Digitaria ciliaris -- Henry's crab grass -- (Poaceae) – Alien Emilia fosbergii -- Pualele -- (Asteraceae) – Alien Ficus microcarpa -- Chinese banyan -- (Moraceae) – Alien Fimbristylis cymosa spathacea -- mau‘u ‘aki‘aki -- (Cyperaceae) – Indigenous Ischaemum byrone -- Ischaemum -- (Poaceae) – Endemic Lantana camara -- Lantana -- (Verbenaceae) – Alien Lycium sandwicense -- ‘öhelo kai, -- (Solanaceae) – Indigenous Morinda citrifolia -- noni -- (Rubiaceae) – Polynesian Nephrolepis multiflora -- Sword fern -- (Nephrolepidaceae) – Alien Osteomeles anthyllidifolia -- Ulei -- (Rosaceae) – Indigenous Pandanus tectorius -- Hala -- (Pandanaceae) – Indigenous Paspalum scrobiculatum -- mau‘u laiki -- (Poaceae) – Indigenous Phymatosorus grossus -- laua‘e -- (Polypodiaceae) – Alien Pluchea carolinensis -- Sourbush -- (Asteraceae) – Alien Psidium guajava -- common guava -- (Myrtaceae) – Alien Psilotum nudum -- moa -- (Psilotaceae) – Indigenous Sadleria pallida -- ‘ama‘u -- (Blechnaceae) – Endemic Scaevola sericea -- Naupaka -- (Goodeniaceae) – Indigenous Sesuvium portulacastrum -- ‘äkulikuli -- (Aizoaceae) – Indigenous Spathoglottis plicata -- Malayan ground orchid -- (Orchidaceae) – Alien Sphenomeris chinensis -- palapala‘ä -- (Lindsaeaceae) -- Indigenous Wikstroemia oahuensis -- ‘äkia -- (Thymelaeaceae) -- Endemic
Date of Record Creation:
August 29, 2012
Date of Last Update:
August 6, 2023

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