K. R. Wood Accession Data
Project: TNC Waikamoi
Date: 20-23 May 2003
Origin: Waikamoi Preserve; Ainahou Bowl region of upper Keanae and within the Koolau forest Reserve of East Maui
Elevation: 5500—6100 ft
GPS [UTM]: 790187 – 2298385 and to the west
Species Name: Hillebrandia sandwicensis
Collector #: K. R. Wood 10177
Co-Collector: P. Bily and M. Chimera
Individual Tag: no
Seed/Cuttings/Other: voucher; rhizomes and cuttings for Lyon
Recommendation: Propagate: all Store: Distribute: upon request
Description of Plant: annual herb, 1 m tall, few branched, stems erect, light green, 4.5 cm at base, flowers pink-white
Plant/Animal Interaction: none observed
Substrate: fine soil and talus
Closure: open to light ca. 40% of the day
Topography: lower slope
Phenology: in flower
Frequency: seven groups observed in back of bowl near cliff walls and on cliffs totaling 192 individuals
Population Structure: Mature: 192 Immature: ?? Seedling: ??
Population Area: 1 sq kilometer
Natural Community: Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima and Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana in addition to Cheirodendron trigynum subsp. trigynum.
Associates: The understory of this forest community is predominantly composed of Dryopteris fusco-atra, Dryopteris subbipinnata, Dryopteris wallichiana, Sadleria cyatheoides, Sadleria pallida, Uncinia uncinata, Luzula hawaiiensis var. hawaiiensis, Deschampsia nubigena, Rubus hawaiensis, and Styphelia tameiameiae. Several open meadow sites are interspersed between forest patches where the terrain is relatively level. These meadows were previously disturbed by cattle and are dominated by weedy grasses and herbs such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Rubus argutus, Prunella vulgaris, and Hypochoeris radicata.
The Ainahou Bowl lies below vertical cliff walls to the south and west which tower more than 600 m above [2000 ft] in some sections. Cliffs are dominated by native ferns such as Arachniodes insularis, Polystichum bonseyi, Polystichum hillebrandii, Pteris cretica, Grammitis hookeri, Dryopteris wallichiana, Dryopteris subpetiolata, and Nothoperanema rubiginosa, in addition to shrubs or trees such as Metrosideros sp., Broussaisia arguta, and Lobelia hypoleuca.
Besides the weedy meadow sites, the Ainahou Bowl represents a rich native watershed which has little or no weeds in the forest zone and appears to be recovering in the meadow zones as a result of animal control. Other common native trees in the region include: Ilex anomala, Perrottetia sandwicensis, Myrsine lessertiana, Syzygium sandwicensis, Coprosma ochracea, Hedyotis hillebrandii, Hedyotis terminalis, Pipturus albidus, and Pipturus forbesii. Less common native trees include: Labordia hirtella, Labordia venosa, Psychotria mariniana, Urera glabra, Melicope clusiifolia, Melicope orbicularis, Melicope volcanica, Clermontia arborescens subsp. waihiae and Myrsine sandwicensis. Common native shrubs include: Coprosma ernodeoides, Vaccinium dentatum, Vaccinium calycinum, Hedyotis centranthoides, Dubautia linearis subsp. opposita, and Dubautia scabra subsp. scabra. Less common native shrubs include: Gunnera petaloïdea, Dubautia dolosa, Dubautia reticulata, Cyrtandra hashimotoi, Cyrtandra platyphylla, and Hedyotis acuminata. Occasional sub-shrubs and herbs include: Astelia menziesiana, Oxalis corniculata, Peperomia cookiana, Peperomia macraeana, Peperomia tetraphylla, Lysimachia hillebrandii, Rubus macraei, and Korthalsella complanata. Native vines include: Phyllostegia ambigua, Stenogyne rotundifolia, and Smilax melastomifolia. Occasional to locally common native sedges and grasses include: Carex alligata, Carex meyenii, Carex wahuensis subsp. wahuensis, Machaerina angustifolia, Carex macloviana subsp. subfusca, Oreobolus furcatus, Agrostis sandwicensis, and Cyperus sandwicensis. Additional native ferns include: Athyrium microphyllum, Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium aethiopicum, Asplenium hobdyi, Asplenium monanthes, Asplenium polyodon, Asplenium trichomanes, Athyrium microphyllum, Diplazium sandwichianum, Cibotium glaucum, Hypolepis hawaiiensis, Microlepia strigosa, Pteridium decompositum, Dryopteris glabra, Elaphoglossum paleaceum, Elaphoglossum wawrae, Dicranopteris linearis f. linearis, Diplopterygium pinnatum, Adenophorus hymenophylloides, Adenophorus tamariscinus, Grammitis tennela, Lellingeria saffordii, Oligadenus pinnatifidus, Mecodium recurvum, Vandenboschia cyrtotheca, Sphenomeris chinensis, Huperzia filiformis, Lycopodiella cernua, Lycopodium venustulum var. venustulum, Lepisorus thunbergianus, Polypodium pellucidum f. pellucidum, Coniogramme pilosa, Pteris excelsa, Selaginella arbuscula, Amauropelta globulifera, Pneumatopteris sandwicensis, and Pseudophegopteris keraudreniana.
Major Threats: The main threats to this ecosystem include habitat degradation and destruction by feral pigs, catastrophic extinction through environmental events, predation by rats that eat seeds, competition with non-native plant taxa such as Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Holcus lanatus, Rubus argutus, Prunella vulgaris, and Hypochoeris radicata, Ageratina adenophora, Lapsana communis, Lythrum maritimum, and Rubus rosifolius, some of which possess the ability to spread rapidly and cover effectively large areas in the forest understory. and for the rare species, reduced reproductive vigor as the result of limited numbers of existing individuals.