Herbarium Sheet Detail
NTBG Plant Name:
K. R. Wood
August 5, 2005
! David H. Lorence 10/2012
David Boynton, Mark Query
Haupu summit region; northern cliffs and slopes.
sub-shrub, 1 m tall, trailing branches, stems green, calyx green or tinged purple-red, ca 400-500 along cliffs
90% open shrubland/fernland with a 10% sparse tree cover
W/ Metrosideros polymorpha, Xylosma hawaiiense, Ilex anomala, Hedyotis terminalis, Tetraplasandra bisattenuata, Bidens valida, Hedyotis fluviatilis, Melicope feddei, Machaerina angustifolia, Dicranopteris linearis and Diplopterygium pinnatum
North Facing Cliffs of Ha`upu. The northern face of Ha`upu is composed of vertical cliffs and steep slopes that drop around 300 m (1000 ft) to the forested slopes below and further level off to the pastures of Kipu Ranch. The cliff community is a 90% open shrubland/fernland with a 10% sparse tree cover. Trees average between 2—3 m tall and include species such as Metrosideros polymorpha (‘ohi‘a); Xylosma hawaiiense (maua); Ilex anomala (kawa‘u); Hedyotis terminalis (manono); Antidesma platyphyllum var. hillebrandii (hame); Psychotria mariniana (kopiko); Perrottetia sandwicensis (olomea); Tetraplasandra bisattenuata (‘ohe‘ohe); Tetraplasandra oahuensis (‘ohe mauka); Pittosporum gayanum (ho‘awa); Pipturus kauaiensis (mamaki); and Pipturus albidus (mamaki). The most common shrub is Bidens valida (ko‘oko‘olau). Several other common shrubs include Hedyotis fluviatilis (kamapua‘a); Melicope feddei (alani); and Hedyotis acuminata (au). Sedges and grasses on the northern slopes include the very common Machaerina angustifolia (‘uki); Eragrostis variabilis (kawelu); Carex wahuensis; Carex meyenii; and occasionally Rhynchospora sclerioides (kuolohia). Matting ferns which compose around 30% of the vegetation on the northern cliffs include Dicranopteris linearis (uluhe) and Diplopterygium pinnatum (uluhe lau nui). Other less common ferns include Cibotium glaucum (hapu‘u); Elaphoglossum crassifolium (hoe a Maui); Sadleria pallida (‘ama‘u ‘i‘i); Sphenomeris chinensis (pala‘a); Selaginella arbuscula (lepelepe a moa); and Christella cyatheoides (kikawaio).
On the slightly dryer black basalt cliff faces to the west of the summit additional native species were observed that were absent from the wetter slopes directly below the summit. The most significant of these include Artemisia australis (‘ahinahina); Chamaesyce celastroides (‘akoko); Lepidium orbiculare (‘anaunau); and Lobelia niihauensis.
Between 15% to 25% of the northern face has been invaded by invasive non-native species, the most common of which were Melastoma septemnervium (Asian melastome); Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass); and the introduced fern Blechnum appendiculatum. ***Hedyotis fluviatilis (Rubiaceae) is known from Kaua`i and O`ahu and is considered a Species of Concern (SOC) by the USFWS. The Hawaiian name for this species is kamapua‘a. On Kaua`i, the author is aware of a small population of kamapua‘a around the Hanakapiai falls and this second population along the north facing cliffs and slopes of Ha`upu. Plants are small, 1 m tall, moderately branched shrubs; branches diffuse and trailing; stems and calyx green or tinged purple-red; flowers white; approximately 400—500 plants along cliffs; (K. R. Wood et al. 2030; 11433; 11438 ).
Date of Last Update:
August 6, 2023
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